Voodoorn Kicking the coal habit in the Western Balkans. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. Category:European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the razovj abstract.
|Published (Last):||12 November 2011|
|PDF File Size:||12.46 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||12.9 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Ideju da se osnuje banka ovog tipa dao je francuski predsednik Fransoa Miteran oktobra U ovom periodu je banka stvorila reputaciju eksperta za probleme vezane za proces tranzicije. Tako je broj zemalja u kojima je banka aktivna porastao na preko Background history European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established upon the ending of the Cold War with the aim to render assistance to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in setting up of the market economy.
The Bank was established over a rather short period of time as a response to the challenges that surfaced after major political changes in Europe, first of all the fall of communism. The idea for establishment of a bank of such a type was tabled by the French President, Francois Mitterrand, in October and less than 18 months later, in April European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was set in place, with its headquarters in London.
In this period, the Bank gained a reputation of an expert in problems related to the transition process. The Bank was involved in the process of reforms of the banking systems of the countries in transition, price liberalisation, privatisation, but also in creation of legal framework for the proprietary rights. The Bank supported the said reforms through consultative services, technical support and training, and also through substantial investments made both in the private and in the public sectors.
In time, the Bank expanded its field of operation beyond the region of Central and Eastern Europe. Cooperation with Mongolia started in the year , with Turkey in , with Jordan, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt in , and as of this year it started also cooperation with Cyprus. Thus the number of countries where the Bank is active grew to over 30 of them.
The only country where the Bank has implemented all of its planned activities and where it is no longer investing is The Czech Republic.
The experience gained by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its cooperation with the other international financial institutions has allowed the Bank to play the key role in stabilisation and recovery of the Central and Eastern European region and that of Central Asia from the world economic crisis of the year In addition to the interests of the state in which it invests, the Bank is also protecting interests of the states that are its shareholders, which makes up for a total of 64 countries.
The ownership structure European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is organised as a shareholding company. The largest individual shareholder is the United States of America with the share in the equity capital of Organisational structure The highest competencies in the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development officially are in the hand of the Board of Governors, where every member country of the Bank is nominating its representative, usually its finance minister.
The Board of Governors delegates the major part of its competencies to the Board of Directors which is responsible for strategic management of the Bank. Predsednik u saradnji sa bordom direktora upravlja poslovanjem banke. Period finansiranja projekata varira od jedne od petnaest godina. Krediti mogu biti denominirani u stranim ili lokalnim valutama.
Kamatne stope na kredite su konkurentne Bankarstvo 2 81 Governors. President, in cooperation with the Board of Directors, is managing business activities of the Bank. The Bank, in implementing its activities, is cooperating with all of its members, but also with other financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Finance Corporation, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations and its agencies and work bodies.
Business operations of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Project financing terms and conditions European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is mostly investing in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and in the countries of Central Asia.
Projects that are subject of investment are innovative and assist development of sustainable, market oriented and open economy. The Bank is financing projects of various sizes, where special attention is paid to the small enterprises. The Bank for the most part invests in the private sector, but in addition it is also financing projects of stateowned companies. In order for the Bank to take into deliberation financing of a certain project, it is necessary for several conditions to be met.
Project information covers a brief description of the project and an elaboration of the ways funds provided by the Bank will be deployed. In addition, description of the product or service that will result from the project should be given, and the description of the manner of their production.
It is also necessary to provide information about the sponsor of the project, his experience, financial position and operational, production and marketing plans. Finally, it is requested to provide market analysis deliberating targeted consumer groups, competitors, volume of sale and distribution strategy. Financial information should include project cost analysis, manner planned for closing financial structure, and plan and analysis of the future financial project performances.
Finally, it is necessary to submit also information on the project impact on environment. Details should be submitted regarding necessary permits, eventual subsidies options, import and export limitations, customs duties, quotas and other limits. Once all the necessary documentation is submitted, the decision most often is made within a period of three to six months. Project financing period varies from one to fifteen years.
The basis for the loan approval is the anticipated project cash flow and the capability of the client to repay credit within the agreed period. Loan is secured by the project assets backed securities of the loan beneficiary.
There is also a possibility for the loan to be converted into shares. Loans of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are usually approved in an amount of 5 million EUR minimum, although for certain countries this amount may be lowered.
Interest rate may be fixed or floating. Region Bankarstvo 2 83 foreign or local currencies. Loan repayment time evaluation is conducted by the Operations is between one and fifteen years. If necessary, Committee of the Bank. Then the President of it is possible to have project specific grace the Bank is presenting the project to the Board periods.
Loan repayment is usually effected in of Directors for approval, and the Board passes equal semi-annual instalments. The Bank does for Reconstruction and Development and the not grant subsidized loans. Initial interest rate client sign the deal agreement. After signing of margin is added as a response to country and the agreement, the Bank transfers funds from its project related risks. Client starts loan European Bank for Reconstruction and repayment under an agreed dynamics.
After a Development is investing also in the equity period of four to eight years, the Bank sells its capital of companies, in the amount between equity investment, if any. Completion of the 2 and million EUR. In doing this, the Bank European Bank for Reconstruction and is interested only in the role of the minority shareholder with clear exit strategy.
During the year , shares regardless of whether they are listed the Bank invested in over 30 countries. Thereafter, final 84 Bankarstvo 2 U periodu od Srbija U Srbiju je investirano preko 3,5 milijardi preko 1,6 milijardi EUR u U Srbiji u Ukrajini. U drugoj polovini osnivanja do The Bank did not and Eastern Mediterranean 5.
When withdraw from the already existing projects in observed per individual countries, European Russia and is still keeping its offices in Moscow, Bank for Reconstruction and Development placed Sankt-Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Vladivostok, the highest amount of its funds in Russia in the Samara, Rostov and Krasnoyarsk.
Serbia occupied, in Europe per individual countries, in the years the year , the sixth place in size of investment and , and in the aggregate amount made by the European Bank for Reconstruction in the period from to is given in the and Development. The funds largest part of these funds was placed in Russia More than one half of these funds were were over 3.
The rest of funds were invested in Development announced, in its official Bosnia and Herzegovina In Serbia, in the year which was in response to the crisis emerging in , there was a substantial growth of the Ukraine.
During establishment up to the year U toku Banka je u toku Tabela 3: Operativni rezultati poslovanja Evropske banke za obnovu i Tokom Ukupna vrednost projekata milioni EUR Banka je tokom U prethodnoj godini ostvaren je rekordan broj investicija od Tokom U ovom regionu finansiran je 21 projkat, u vrednosti od miliona EUR. Evropska banka za obnovu i razvoj je u The rest of funds were invested in Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.
During the year , investments reached a total of 8. In this region the Bank financed 21 projects in the value of million EUR. Investments in the company equity capital reached 1. In the year , the Bank financed 32 projects in 16 countries, in the field of environment protection, in the total value of 2.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, in the year , made net profit of 1. The major part of profit million EUR was accrued from interest, while the rest was mostly made on the basis of dividends from investments made in the equity capital. It is of the European Bank for Reconstruction expected that the financial position of the Bank, and Development operations is given in the over the forthcoming period, will remain stable.
During the year , the Bank invested Problems and risks facing the Bank in projects in the value of 8. In the previous year, a record important among them being the credit risk, high number of investments were reached of market risk, and liquidity risk. Over the past projects. U septembru Saradnja je formalizovana Memorandumom o razumevanju iz Tek nakon oktobra Do kraja godine je finansirano ukupno 7 projekata.
U periodu od Evropska banka za obnovu i razvoj je Srbiji odobrila ukupno 3,5 milijardi EUR kredita za projekata, ukupne vrednosti preko 7,5 milijardi EUR. Credit risk designates possibility of loss when loan beneficiaries fail to service their loan liabilities to the Bank. The Bank is striving to mitigate this risk through diversification - striving to avoid allocating, to any particular country or any particular sector, too high a share in its portfolio.
Evropska Banka Za Obnovu I Razvoj
Europska banka za obnovu i razvitak
Evropska banka za obnovu i razvoj izdvaja milijardu evra zbog korona virusa