CISG ARABIC PDF

Switzerland expects the number of CISG contracting states to keep rising. Thus the court reverted to the general principles of article 31 CISG. The court granted interest under article 78 CISG. The court held that article 74 CISG was such a law.

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Challenges present Tristan Laflamme states: "An abundance of this sort may provoke two contradictory situations.

On one side, it may prove helpful to look at the different wordings in order to solve ambiguities. In this perspective, each text contributes to the construction of the others and clarifies the intention of the Contracting States.

Roy M. Goode notes "the extreme difficulty not only in translating concepts that have no exact legal equivalent in the other system, but also in converting the structure and syntax of one language into the quite different structure of another. Similarly, Amy H. Kastely states: "[W]ords used in one language. In English these words carry a rich heritage of legal doctrine, and their equivalents in the Western European languages have similar depth. Yet the translations of these words used in the other official versions, such as Chinese and Arabic, do not carry similar implications.

Frank Diedrich states: "[W]hen interpreting multilingual conventions, there is an issue as to which language of the text is authentic, since the starting point for any statutory interpretation is logically the wording of the statute itself.

This wording represents the direct, "frozen" will of the legislature and must be followed by all courts by virtue of its supremacy under the separation of powers. Although multilingual conventions support their own international acceptance, and present valuable advantages for parties from different countries that enter a contract, there is also the side-effect of a vast amount of possible interpretations.

All texts that are not authentic are excluded from an autonomous interpretation. The only texts that have become binding on the court by way of a ratification of the Convention are those that were declared authentic by the "international legislator.

As the "international legislator" declares, since all these languages are equally authentic, no language may prevail. A lawyer must find the accurate text "texte juste" by comparing them all. Such an analysis reveals that concerning the CISG, the official but non-authentic German translation that was jointly drafted by Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, the former German Democratic Republic and Switzerland has to be ruled out as the basis for an autonomous interpretation.

As such, it is reasonable to examine the English and French texts of the CISG to find a texte juste, because these were the languages in which the deliberations and legal negotiations among the representatives of the Contracting States took place.

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CISG ARABIC PDF

Language, structure, and content[ edit ] The CISG is written using " plain language that refers to things and events for which there are words of common content". The CISG also applies if the parties are situated in different countries which need not be Contracting States and the conflict of law rules lead to the application of the law of a Contracting State. A number of States have declared they will not be bound by this condition. With some limited exceptions, it does not apply to personal, family, or household goods, nor does it apply to auctions, ships, aircraft, [22] or intangibles [23] and services. The CISG allows for a sale to be oral or unsigned, [29] but in some countries, contracts are not valid unless written.

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Translation of "CISG" in Arabic

Challenges present Tristan Laflamme states: "An abundance of this sort may provoke two contradictory situations. On one side, it may prove helpful to look at the different wordings in order to solve ambiguities. In this perspective, each text contributes to the construction of the others and clarifies the intention of the Contracting States. Roy M. Goode notes "the extreme difficulty not only in translating concepts that have no exact legal equivalent in the other system, but also in converting the structure and syntax of one language into the quite different structure of another. Similarly, Amy H.

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