The name means "suit against bills contrary to the laws. Once someone announced under oath that he intended to bring such a suit, the legislation or decree in question was suspended until the matter was resolved. The thinking was that, as there was no mechanism in Athens for unmaking a law , any new law should not be in contradiction with the already existing laws. The suit served a double function.
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The name means "suit against bills contrary to the laws. Once someone announced under oath that he intended to bring such a suit, the legislation or decree in question was suspended until the matter was resolved. The thinking was that, as there was no mechanism in Athens for unmaking a law , any new law should not be in contradiction with the already existing laws.
The suit served a double function. Firstly, it provided a means of reviewing and perhaps rescinding decrees and legislation passed by the assembly. In this it seems to resemble a court of review such as the modern U. Supreme Court. However, the judges who in English are usually referred to as jurors of the judicial formations of the Athenian court of Heliaia were, like those attending assembly, ordinary citizens and not legal experts, just as the court used was a general one and not a panel devoted to legislative matters.
Jurors, it is true, had a slightly higher status, as they had to be over thirty, not twenty as for the assembly,[ citation needed ] and they were under oath. The mechanism can be compared to the upper houses found in many modern democracies. However, in Athens this review was not automatic, but had to be initiated by a citizen. Unlike both an upper house or a specially established court, the review was not framed as an impartial and objective re-examination, but was couched as a prosecution to be defended by a defendant who stood to suffer a penalty in the event of conviction.
In this lies its second function: it provided a weapon with which rival Athenian politicians could damage or eliminate each other, or from another perspective, a means by which the Athenian demos could favor or punish the leaders who served it. The suit was brought against the speaker who had proposed the motion in the assembly: he was regarded as having misled the people and corrupted the laws of the state, since the assembly itself was not accountable to anyone and by a kind of structural fiction see legal fiction could do no wrong.
The liability of the proposer expired after one year; after that the law itself could still be attacked and rescinded, but the proposer would not suffer any penalty. After five years the law itself was no longer subject to a suit. In this case disenfranchisement atimia would result, effectively ending a political career. Because of this, active politicians began recruiting surrogates to propose bills that they themselves had authored.
Very many of the known prosecutions concern not substantive legislation but honorary decrees, seemingly of little importance from a modern viewpoint. These did however allow discussion of a wide range of questions and issues.
Kajilkree It thus played an integral role in the lives of ancient Greeks. The coins produced during this period are called Roman provincial coins or Greek Imperial Coins. Member feedback about Athenian democracy: The decoration on Greek pottery after about BC lacks the figurative decoration of Mycenaean ware and is restricted to simpler, BC onwards, and evidence has emerged of the new presence of Hellenes in sub-Mycenaean Cyprus and on the Syrian coast at Al Mina. Member feedback about Pelasgians: Graphe paranomon was the legal action taken against citizens who proposed motions which were in contravention of existing legislation. The suit was brought against the speaker who had proposed the motion in the assembly: Gyges, a king of Lydia in the late eighth and early seventh centuries BC, was the first ruler to be called a tyrant in Greek literature. In the context of the art, architecture, and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC the most common dates being the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in BC and the death of Alexander the Great in BC.
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