The chapter itself makes a lot of great points and is enjoyable enough to read. Bassham is not a very strong writer and a lot of the statements he makes made me feel very uncomfortable or having me shaking my head. The chapter offered good discussion in class because it points out important topics like fatalism even though it completely dismisses it and determinism. Really well-done. The arguments these writers make contradict themselves and have no basis.

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One of the surest signs of friendship is the willingness to help out in bad times. Those who stand by us through hardship, depression, and failure will certainly be there when things are good too. Good friends are loyal and trusting and good friendships are admirable. One way of interpreting this is that we should be cautious about trusting anyone or anything as long as we are unsure about his motivation.

On the positive side, then, we should trust those who wish us well. So what exactly is it about a friendship that makes it admirable? The Potter books provide us with an excellent opportunity to explore this question.

If ever he needed a friend, this would be the time. Enter Quirrell, who was kind enough to let Voldemort into his heart, his mind, and literally into the back of his head where the Dark Lord began recouping his strength. Going about with a foul-smelling turban wrapped around your head to cover a grotesque companion is a bit inconvenient after all. At best we might admit a grudging admiration, but we would be right to see his friendship with Voldemort as corrupt.

Wormtail also makes a great sacrifice to prove his loyalty to Voldemort. Earlier, he had insisted on the strength of his devotion GF1 , but he was now required to prove it. His agents are motivated by equal parts of fear and greed. When he had lost his powers, most of his supposedly loyal Death Eaters plead innocence or ignorance to avoid punishment.

This sort always tries to back the winner, whoever it may be GF9, GF Their loyalty is never more than a thinly disguised hope for future rewards, a show designed to advance their own ambitions. Wormtail, for example, is rewarded with a silver hand capable of crushing rock GF But there were some notable exceptions. Some Death Eaters were motivated by more than greed and fear. The most striking example is Barty Crouch, Jr.

His loyalty is motivated by respect and admiration. Unlike the other Death Eaters, Barty sees Voldemort as more than a way to advance his own ambitions. He desires a deeper connection, hoping that Voldemort will respect him in return and even love him as a son GF Nonetheless, Voldemort probably sees Barty as a tool or instrument that he can use to achieve his ambitions.

No one would be a bit surprised if Voldemort sacrificed Barty to get what he wanted. The three of them are more or less on an equal footing. Although we may not find much to admire about Crabbe and Goyle, they do stick by their friend. No accounting for taste, we might say, but there it is. But that may be too easy. Malfoy is not yet a hardened criminal. We may think of him, along with Crabbe and Goyle, as young lads gone wrong. Although they have had plenty of material benefits, something has gone wrong with their moral development.

But in spite of this they have formed the best friendships of which they are capable. If there ever were a kind-hearted shaggy giant of a friend, Hagrid is the one. But Hagrid has his faults too. The matter is taken up by a disciplinary hearing to decide the fate of both Hagrid and the "dangerous" Hippogriff.

Harry, Ron, and Hermione promise to help Hagrid construct a defense for Buckbeak. Hermione, on the other hand, works tirelessly on the defense. As the hearing approaches, Hagrid invites Harry and Ron to his hut. After they arrive, they both remember their promise to help Hagrid defend Buckbeak, and feel terrible pangs of guilt.

Hagrid waves this subject away. First, they had snubbed Hermione because her concern over the broomstick got it confiscated for a few weeks while it was checked for curses.

Then Ron gave her the cold shoulder because her cat apparently ate his rat Scabbers. But what exactly does it mean? Is a good friend simply someone who has good intentions and acts on them? With the help of Aristotle, we can see that it takes quite a bit more. This is certainly the case when it comes to friendship, which Aristotle explores in great depth and detail in two books of his Nicomachean Ethics. No surprise there. We can begin to narrow down the kinds of love we experience in friendship by noticing that it occurs only in relation to living things.

When we say that we just love ice cream, everyone understands what we really mean is that we love to eat ice cream. It would be a bit odd if we were constantly checking the temperature of the freezer to make sure my ice cream is comfortable. But with friends, Aristotle remarks, we do wish good things for their sake, and not just for our own. There is a two-way relation that is essential to friendship. This is part of what it means to have your heart in the right place.

But it is doubtful that the stranger returns these good wishes, nor would we want to call such a relationship, a friendship. So, depending on what it is we love about our friend, we want to both give and receive pleasant, useful, or good things. Thus, Aristotle arrives at three types of friendship.

We might hope that Laura benefits somehow from her relationship with us, but primarily what we care about is the chance to fly. So if we want to provide some benefit in return, it will be because we want to keep on flying.

In that case, our intentions might be good, but our motivation is suspect. This is pretty much what we find going on with Voldemort, who never expresses any interest in the well being of his followers. They are merely instruments to be manipulated, punished, and rewarded insofar as they fulfill his needs. It would be totally out of character for him to be concerned about who Quirrell or Wormtail really are, except insofar as it will help to motivate them to do his bidding.

The same sort of analysis holds for friendships based on pleasure. We might hope that he finds us amusing too, but primarily what we care about are the laughs we get from hanging out with him. We might even increase our own pleasure by making him laugh. But, again, we are motivated primarily by a desire for our own pleasure.

Crabbe and Goyle have this sort of relationship with Malfoy. In return, Malfoy enjoys a receptive audience for his malicious humor along with the benefit of their protection. Although we can imagine that they might genuinely like each other, it would be too much of a stretch to imagine them trying to improve each other in any worthwhile way.

Perhaps at best, Malfoy might encourage his cronies to be physically fit, and they might encourage Malfoy to practice his cruel wit. It just happens to be Laura who has the enchanted car and Alex who has the great sense of humor, both characteristics that we value, but characteristics that could well be provided by lots of other people, even though enchanted cars are quite rare.

Quirrell, Wormtail, Crabbe, and Goyle are similarly replaceable. Furthermore, Voldemort and Malfoy enjoy the benefits and pleasures resulting from their friendships regardless of whether their friends are good people.

In fact, Voldemort surely knows that his friends are rotten to the core, and Malfoy probably could not care less. Torna in cima Friendship in the Fullest Sense link By contrast, in an admirable friendship, we enjoy the benefits and pleasures because we realize that our friend is a good person. What we love about a friend in this case is primarily that he is, or at least appears to be, a good person. Whatever benefits and pleasures that follow are certainly enjoyable, but they are not the basis of our friendship.

In other words, we want good things for our friend, for his sake. Aristotle does not think that helping our friends requires ignoring our own interests. When we help a good friend, we are at the same time pursuing our own good. To see this we must expand our notion of the good from the sort that gets smaller as it is divided to the sort that increases as it is divided. Dividing it makes it more, not less.

The good that Aristotle has in mind is the strength of character, or virtue, from which good actions flow. When we help a friend to strengthen his character, we have increased the amount of good available, whereas when we merely take up space in the enchanted car, we have reduced the amount of good available. Friendship in the fullest sense requires a shared understanding that what is good for a friend is also good for us.

So when we strive for the good of a friend, we are also striving for our own good. In fact, Aristotle famously remarks that a friend is another self. Just as we should love what is noble and good about ourselves, so too we should love what is noble and good in our friends. The love for a friend, understood as another self, turns out to be an extension of the appropriate sort of love of oneself.

Hagrid identifies with Harry right from the start. Like Harry, he had lost both of his parents, and was extremely unsure about how or whether he would fit in at Hogwarts GF24, PS5.

But the identification runs deeper. In other words, Hagrid believes that Harry would never break the rules unless it were for the sake of some more important good. The Daily Prophet had published a story about Hagrid, accurately revealing that he is half giant, but slandering him as a brutal and arrogant liar who abuses his position at Hogwarts and maims students GF Hagrid is mortified by this, and believes he should resign his position. They see the Hagrid who nurses the mail-carrying owls back to health after they have flown through rough weather PS12 , the Hagrid who is able to see the good in creatures that everyone else fears and finds horrifying, and the Hagrid who can be counted on to put the good of his friends first.

In his moment of extreme self-doubt, his friends reveal to him who he really is and provide him with the confidence that he deserves.


Harry Potter and Philosophy: If Aristotle Ran Hogwarts (Review)



Harry Potter and philosophy : if Aristotle ran Hogwarts



If Aristotle Ran Hogwarts



Harry Potter and Philosophy: If Aristotle Ran Hogwarts


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