I am also interested in interpersonal rejection and the role that it plays in motivation, behavior, and emotion. More recently, I have become interested in the negative effects of self-reflection and in hypo-egoic states that minimize these negative effects. Thus, no matter what else they may be doing, people typically monitor and control their public impressions -- a process known as self-presentationor impression management. I have been interested in many aspects of self-presentational processes. My book "Self-Presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior" reviews the growing literature on self-presentation. I have also developed a reconceptualization of self-esteem and self-esteem motivation.

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Introduction Mark Leary and colleagues developed sociometer theory to explain the nature and function of the self-esteem system. According to sociometer theory, the answer to this evolutionary dilemma was the development of the self-esteem system.

This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. References Anthony, D. Social acceptance and self-esteem: Tuning the sociometer to interpersonal value. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 6 , — Testing the sociometer theory: Self-esteem and the importance of acceptance for social decision-making.

Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, — The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 3 , — Self-esteem and self-serving biases in reactions to positive and negative events: An integrative review. Baumeister Ed. New York: Plenum. Google Scholar Cameron, J. Acceptance is in the eye of the beholder: Self-esteem and motivated perceptions of acceptance from the opposite sex.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99 3 , — Taking chances in the face of threat: Romantic risk regulation and approach motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, — Human agency: The basis for true self-esteem.

Kernis Ed. Google Scholar Denissen, J. Self-esteem reactions to social interactions: Evidence for sociometer mechanisms across days, people, and nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95 1 , — The mating sociometer: A regulatory mechanism for mating aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, — Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 56, — The sociometer, self-esteem, and the regulation of interpersonal behavior.

Vohs Eds. New York: Guilford. Google Scholar Leary, M. Sociometer theory and the pursuit of relational value: Getting to the root of self-esteem. European Review of Social Psychology, 16 1 , 75— The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Zanna Ed. San Diego: Academic. Interpersonal functions of the self-esteem motive: The self-esteem system as a sociometer.

Self-esteem as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 3 , — The invalidity of disclaimers about the effects of social feedback on self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 5 , — Social approval and trait self-esteem. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 23— Does social exclusion motivate interpersonal reconnection? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 42— When rejection stings: How self-esteem constrains relationship enhancement processes.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, — Optimizing assurance: The risk regulation system in relationships. Psychological Bulletin, , Why do we need what we need? A terror management perspective on the roots of human social motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 1— The cost of lower self-esteem: Testing a self-and-social-bonds model of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, — The regulatory function of self-esteem: Testing the epistemic and acceptance signaling systems.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99 6 , — Warming up and cooling down: Self-esteem and behavioral responses to social threat during relationship initiation.

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Sociometer Theory

Background[ edit ] Leary completed his undergraduate coursework at West Virginia Wesleyan College in He obtained his M. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association. Leary also founded the scholarly journal Self and Identity in Additionally, he has served on the editorial review boards of many other academic journals in psychology. While there are clear benefits to the human ability to distinguish oneself from others and reflect upon past experiences, Leary and his colleagues have revealed many disadvantages as well.



Jump to navigation Jump to search Sociometer theory is a theory of self-esteem from an evolutionary psychological perspective which proposes that self-esteem is a gauge or sociometer of interpersonal relationships. This theoretical perspective was first introduced by Mark Leary and colleagues in [1] [2] and later expanded on by Kirkpatrick and Ellis. This theory was created as a response to psychological phenomenon i. Confirmed by various studies and research, if a person is deemed having relational value, they are more likely to have higher self-esteem. The main concept of sociometer theory is that the self-esteem system acts as a gauge to measure the quality of an individuals current and forthcoming relationships. Furthermore, this measurement of self-esteem assesses these two types of relationships in terms of relational appreciation. This is how other people might view and value the relationships they hold with the individual.


Mark Leary


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