Parasol Mushroom Macrolepiota procera Parasol Mushroom Macrolepiota procera I have wrestled quite a bit over whether to add this one. They have exceptionally fine flavor though. One of the absolute best. Although it is not that hard to identify you must be exceptionally observant of all characteristics. You cannot afford a mistake. There are some Lepiota relatives that are very poisonous or even deadly.
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External links Taxonomy The fungus was first described in by Italian naturalist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli , who named it Agaricus procerus.
The stipe is relatively thin and reaches full height before the cap has expanded. The stipe is very fibrous in texture which renders it inedible. The immature cap is compact and egg-shaped , with the cap margin around the stipe, sealing a chamber inside the cap. As it matures, the margin breaks off, leaving a fleshy, movable ring around the stipe. At full maturity , the cap is more or less flat, with a chocolate-brown umbo in the centre that is leathery to touch. Dark and cap-coloured flakes remain on the upper surface of the cap and can be removed easily.
The gills are crowded, free, and white with a pale pink tinge sometimes present. The spore print is white. It has a pleasant nutty smell. When sliced, the white flesh may turn a pale pink. Uses This edible mushroom  is a very sought-after and popular fungus in Europe, due in part to its large size, seasonal frequency and versatility in the kitchen.
In the UK, it may be found from July through to November. The parasol mushroom is difficult to mistake for any other, especially in regions like Europe where the poisonous look-alike Chlorophyllum molybdites is rare.
Nevertheless, as with picking any fungus for consumption, caution should be exercised at all times. Macrolepiota procera is also edible raw, though its close lookalikes in the genus Chlorophyllum are toxic raw. These mushrooms are popularly sauteed in melted butter. In central and eastern European countries this mushroom is usually prepared similarly to a cutlet.
It is usually run through egg and breadcrumbs and then fried in a pan with some oil or butter. Served with white bread, it makes a delicious meal during summer and early fall. Italians and Austrians also serve the young, still spherical caps stuffed with seasoned minced beef, baked in the same manner as stuffed peppers. Similar species Macrolepiota procera, the parasol mushroom Smaller but similar in appearance is the common shaggy parasol Chlorophyllum rhacodes. Its edibility is suspect as it causes mild sickness in some people, especially when eaten raw.
One must learn to distinguish the two as their geographical ranges overlap. Differences from the parasol mushroom include its smaller dimensions, pungent fruity and reddening flesh when cut, lack of patterns on its stipe, and very shaggy cap surface. Macrolepiota mastoidea , a European species, is yet another very large edible mushroom.
Its dimensions are generally smaller than that of M. It is also much rarer. Species of Agaricus have brown spores and the gills of mature specimens are never white. There are a few poisonous species which can be mistaken for M. Chlorophyllum molybdites , a species that causes the largest number of annual mushroom poisonings in North America due to its close similarity.
Faintly green gills and a pale green spore print give it away. Furthermore, this mushroom lacks the aforementioned snakeskin pattern that is generally present on the parasol mushroom. White and immature species of Amanita are also a potential hazard. To be sure, one must only pick parasol mushrooms past their button stage. A general rule of thumb with the parasol mushroom as compared to amanita species is that the parasol mushroom has darker flakes on a lighter surface, whereas amanita species have the opposite, lighter flakes if there are any on a darker surface, such as the Panther cap.
The Saffron Parasol Cystoderma amianthinum is very much smaller, and not often eaten. Lepiota brunneoincarnata is a lepiota species known to have caused mortal intoxications in Spain. It is much smaller than Macrolepiota procera.
Gallery Picked mushroom caps in basket Related Research Articles A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source. Mushroom hunting, mushrooming, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, shrooming, and similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild, typically for food.
This practice is popular throughout most of Europe, Australia, Japan, Korea, parts of the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, as well as the temperate regions of Canada and the United States. Lepiota is a genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Agaricaceae. All Lepiota species are ground-dwelling saprotrophs with a preference for rich, calcareous soils. Basidiocarps are agaricoid with whitish spores, typically with scaly caps and a ring on the stipe.
Around species of Lepiota are currently recognized worldwide. Many species are poisonous, some lethally so. The Agaricaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi and include the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae. Shaggy parasol is the common name for three closely related species of mushroom, Chlorophyllum rhacodes, C.
While it was first described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli in , this mushroom was a known favorite of early rulers of the Roman Empire. The young fruit bodies first appear as white cylinders emerging from the ground, then the bell-shaped caps open out. The caps are white, and covered with scales—this is the origin of the common names of the fungus. The gills beneath the cap are white, then pink, then turn black and secrete a black liquid filled with spores.
This mushroom is unusual because it will turn black and dissolve itself in a matter of hours after being picked or depositing spores. Occurring in Europe in spring, A. The caps, stipes and gills are all white in colour. Chlorophyllum is a genus of large agarics similar in appearance to the true parasol mushroom. Chlorophyllum was originally coined in , a time when spore color was the deciding factor for differentiating genera.
It was termed in order to describe the poisonous green-spored C. The name derives from Greek Chloro meaning green and phyllo meaning leaf. It remained as a genus of one lonely member until recently when modern DNA analyses concluded that many of the mushrooms contained in the genus Macrolepiota actually had more in common genetically with the Chlorophyllum molybdites than with the other members of the Macrolepiota.
The genus has a widespread distribution, with many species found in tropical regions. The best known members are the edible shaggy parasol, a name applied to three very similar species Chlorophyllum rhacodes, C.
Chlorophyllum molybdites, which has the common names of false parasol,green-spored Lepiota and vomiter, is a widespread mushroom. Poisonous and producing severe gastrointestinal symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea, it is commonly confused with the shaggy parasol or shaggy mane, and is the most commonly consumed poisonous mushroom in North America.
Its large size and similarity to the edible parasol mushroom, as well as its habit of growing in areas near human habitation, are reasons cited for this. The nature of the poisoning is predominantly gastrointestinal. Macrolepiota is a genus of white spored, gilled mushrooms of the family Agaricaceae.
The best-known member is the parasol mushroom M. The widespread genus contains about 40 species. Marasmius oreades, the Scotch bonnet, is also known as the fairy ring mushroom or fairy ring champignon. The latter names tend to cause some confusion, as many other mushrooms grow in fairy rings.
Macrolepiota clelandii, commonly known as the slender parasol or graceful parasol, is a species of mushroom-forming fungus in the family Lepiotaceae. The species is found in Australia and New Zealand, where it fruits singly or in small groups on the ground in eucalypt woodlands, parks, and roadsides.
The whitish gills on the cap underside are closely spaced and free from attachment to the slender stipe, which has a loose ring on its upper half, and a bulbous base. The edibility of the mushroom is not known with certainty, but closely related parasol mushrooms are edible and some are very sought after. Macrolepiota excoriata is a mushroom in the family Agaricaceae. Amanita regalis, commonly known as the royal fly agaric or the king of Sweden Amanita, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family.
Common in Scandinavian countries, it is also found in eastern and northern Europe. In North America, its distribution is restricted to Alaska. The fruit bodies of the fungus somewhat resemble the fly agaric, and it was formerly regarded as a variety of this species. Chemical analysis has shown that this species contains muscimol, the same psychoactive compound found in A. Saffron Ringless Amanita is a species of Amanita widely distributed in Europe.
It is a white mushroom originally described from Texas but today found in nine states of North America. It was named after Harry Delbert Thiers. It is sticky to the touch when wet. The gills are variable in length and number and are densely packed in some specimens and widely spaced in others. The spores measure 7. Amanita ceciliae, commonly called snakeskin grisette and strangulated amanita, is a basidiomycete fungus in the genus Amanita. The cap has charcoal-grey patches, which are easily removable.
It is slightly tapered to the top, and has irregular cottony bands girdling the base. The universal veil is grey. Spores are white, spherical in shape, non-amyloid, and measure The mushrooms are considered edible, but field guides typically advise caution in selecting them for consumption, due to risks of confusion with similar toxic species.
Lepiota cristata, commonly known as the stinking dapperling or the stinking parasol, is an agaric and possibly poisonous mushroom in the family Agaricaceae. A common and widespread species—one of the most widespread fungi in the genus Lepiota—it has been reported from Europe, northern Asia, North America, and New Zealand. It fruits on the ground in disturbed areas, such as lawns, path and road edges, parks, and gardens. The species produces fruit bodies characterized by the flat, reddish-brown concentric scales on the caps, and an unpleasant odour resembling burnt rubber.
Similar Lepiota species can sometimes be distinguished from L.
Coulemelle, Lépiote élevée, Baguette-de-tambour, Nez de chat
El sombrero de M. Posee un ensanchamiento en forma de bulbo en su base. Desde el anillo hasta el sombrero es liso, de color beige. Esporas Las esporas del hongo M.
Macrolepiota procera: características, morfología, hábitat
It grows solitary, scattered or clustered on soil in open grassy places and in mixed woods. Cap pallid brown decorated with darker brown broad scales, starts off egg shaped and then bell shaped until the cap margin detaches from the stripe. The base colour becomes lighter with age. Dark scales appear on top when the brown surface cracks up from the smooth, central bump. Gills are white, free, and crowded.
Fiche de Macrolepiota
External links Taxonomy The fungus was first described in by Italian naturalist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli , who named it Agaricus procerus. The stipe is relatively thin and reaches full height before the cap has expanded. The stipe is very fibrous in texture which renders it inedible. The immature cap is compact and egg-shaped , with the cap margin around the stipe, sealing a chamber inside the cap. As it matures, the margin breaks off, leaving a fleshy, movable ring around the stipe. At full maturity , the cap is more or less flat, with a chocolate-brown umbo in the centre that is leathery to touch. Dark and cap-coloured flakes remain on the upper surface of the cap and can be removed easily.
Macrolepiota procera var. Distribution Frequent in southern Britain and Ireland, Parasols are less common in northern England and Scotland except for sheltered coastal locations. This species occurs also in most parts of mainland Europe and in the USA. Shown above is quite the finest display of Parasols that I have ever seen. Growing on stable sand dunes on Morfa Dyffryn National Nature Reserve , on the coast just south of Harlech in North Wales, this slightly wavy line of fungal beauties extended some 80 metres, with more than 30 fruitbodies all in perfect condition. On National Nature Reserves in Britain it is an offence to pick wildflowers or fungi without special permission, which may be granted for research purposes.