IBN FADLAN AND THE LAND OF DARKNESS PDF

Background Edit Ahmad ibn Fadlan was described as an Arab in contemporaneous sources. Frye add that nothing can be said with certainty about his origin, his ethnicity, his education, or even the dates of his birth and death. Other than the fact that he was both a traveler and a theologian in service of the Abbasid Caliphate, little is known about Ahmad Ibn Fadlan prior to and his self-reported travels. These were the Volga Bulgars; another group of Bulgars had moved westward in the 6th century, invading the country that today bears their name, and became Christians. Additionally, the embassy was sent in response to a request by the king of the Volga Bulgars to help them against their enemies, the Khazars. Leaving the city of Gurgan near the Caspian Sea , they crossed lands belonging to a variety of Turkic peoples, notably the Khazar Khaganate , Oghuz Turks on the east coast of the Caspian, the Pechenegs on the Ural River , and the Bashkirs in what is now central Russia, but the largest portion of his account is dedicated to the Rus , i.

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Background Edit Ahmad ibn Fadlan was described as an Arab in contemporaneous sources. Frye add that nothing can be said with certainty about his origin, his ethnicity, his education, or even the dates of his birth and death. Other than the fact that he was both a traveler and a theologian in service of the Abbasid Caliphate, little is known about Ahmad Ibn Fadlan prior to and his self-reported travels.

These were the Volga Bulgars; another group of Bulgars had moved westward in the 6th century, invading the country that today bears their name, and became Christians. Additionally, the embassy was sent in response to a request by the king of the Volga Bulgars to help them against their enemies, the Khazars.

Leaving the city of Gurgan near the Caspian Sea , they crossed lands belonging to a variety of Turkic peoples, notably the Khazar Khaganate , Oghuz Turks on the east coast of the Caspian, the Pechenegs on the Ural River , and the Bashkirs in what is now central Russia, but the largest portion of his account is dedicated to the Rus , i. When they arrived, Ibn Fadlan read aloud a letter from the caliph to the Bulgar Khan , and presented him with gifts from the caliphate.

One scholar calls it an "illuminating episode" in the text where Ibn Fadlan expresses his great anger and disgust over the fact that the Khan and the Volga Bulgars in general are practicing some form of imperfect and doctrinally unsound Islam. In general, Ibn Fadlan recognized and judged the peoples of central Eurasia he encountered by the possession and practice of Islam, along with their efforts put forth to utilize, implement, and foster Islamic faith and social practice in their respective society.

Consequently, many of the peoples and societies to Ibn Fadlan were "like asses gone astray. They have no religious bonds with God, nor do they have recourse to reason". I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor kaftans , but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free. Each man has an axe , a sword , and a knife , and keeps each by him at all times.

Each woman wears on either breast a box of iron , silver , copper , or gold ; the value of the box indicates the wealth of the husband. Each box has a ring from which depends a knife. The women wear neck-rings of gold and silver. Their most prized ornaments are green glass beads.

They string them as necklaces for their women. Ibn Fadlan, on the Rus merchants at Itil, They are described as having bodies tall as date palm-trees, with blond hair and ruddy skin. Each is tattooed from "the tips of his toes to his neck" with dark blue or dark green "designs" and all men are armed with an axe, sword and long knife. He also describes in great detail the funeral of one of their chieftains a ship burial involving rape and human sacrifice.

Saint-Petersburg: aus der Buchdruckerei der Akademie. Leipzig: Kommissionsverlag F. Dahhan, S. McKeithen, James E.

Translated by Canard, Marius; Miquel, Andre. Paris: Sindbad. Amawi; A. Jokhosha; E. Neubauer Frankfurt am Main: I. Ибн Фадлан, Пътешествие до Волжска in Bulgarian.

България ИК "Аргес", София. Flowers, Stephen E. Montgomery, James E. Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies. Princeton: Marcus Weiner Publishers. Penguin Classics.

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Ibn Fadlān and the land of darkness : Arab travellers in the far north

Background[ edit ] Ahmad ibn Fadlan was described as an Arab in contemporaneous sources. Frye add that nothing can be said with certainty about his origin, his ethnicity, his education, or even the dates of his birth and death. Other than the fact that he was both a traveler and a theologian in service of the Abbasid Caliphate, little is known about Ahmad Ibn Fadlan prior to and his self-reported travels. These were the Volga Bulgars; another group of Bulgars had moved westward in the 6th century, invading the country that today bears their name, and became Christians.

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Ibn Fadlan And The Land Of Darkness PDF

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